Communication-Channels, barriers

Communication-Channels, barriers

  • Communication is the expression or exchange of information by speech, writing, gestures, conduct or electronic medium.
  • It is a process of passing information, ideas, facts, or opinions between two or more parties.
  • It is the process by which an idea is brought to anothers perception.
  • The information that is so expressed or exchanged is also referred to as communication.
  • It is a complex and dynamic process that allows organisms to exchange information by several methods.


  1. Source
  2. Sender
  3. Channel
  4. Receiver
  5. Destination
  6. Message
  7. Feedback
  8. Context


    Possible Question types

v  Arrange in Correct order/sequence Question may be asked in exam

v  Question may be : which is the odd one .

v  For solve this we have to know the components

Three other elements associated with the process of communication are:

  1. Entropy : Entropy is a measure of the amount of uncertainty in the message/content.
  2. Redundancy : Redundancy either knowingly or unknowingly enters the communication process.
  3. Noise : Noise is actually anything irrelevant, unwarranted, undesired and hence, a disturbance/interference to effective transmission. Noise is anything that disrupts or interferes with the effective communication process.


v  Question type :- Question may ask as bellow

Q. What is the Entropy/ Redundancy/ Noise in communication process?





Communication may be broadly classified as:

  • Intrapersonal
  • Interpersonal
  • Group Dynamics
  • Public/Mass
  • Organization
  • Cross cultural

Important Articles/essays written on Communication

  • Harry Nyquist  : “Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed.” (1924)
  • Claude Shannon : “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” (1948)
  • Robert T Craig : “Communication Theory as a Field” (1999)
  • Max Horkheimer : Traditional and Critical Theory. (1937)
  • Harold Lasswell : Book --The Structure and Function of Communication in Society
  • Theodore M Newcomb : Book--“An Approach to the Study of Communicative Acts.

v  Possible Questions

  • In exam question may be asked, they give an article title and asked who wrote that paper




  • Corax can be credited with the first formal rhetorical theory
  • He wrote a treatise The Art of Rhetoric.


  • John Locke (1690) introduced the term semiotics



  • Norbert Wiener coined the term "cybernetics" (1948)
  • Wiener (1954) introduces the ideas of entropy and feedback into his theory




  • Critical theory was first defined by Max Horkheimer in 1937 in his essay “Traditional and Critical Theory.
  • Critical theory is a social theory oriented toward critiquing and changing society as a whole, in contrast to traditional theory oriented only to understanding or explaining it.




Aristotles Model of Communication Aristotle (300 B.C.)
Harold Lasswell Model of Communication Harold Dwight Lasswell (1948)
Shannon & Weaver Model of Communication Claude Elwood Shannon (1949)
Theodore M Newcombs Model of Communication Theodore M Newcomb (1953)
Circular Model of Communication Wilbur Schramm & Osgood (1954)
George Gerbner Model of Communication George Gerbner (1956)
Westley & Macleans Model Westley & Maclean (1957)
David Berlo SMCR Model of Communication David Berlo (1960)
Helical Model of communication / Dances Helix Model Frank Dance (1967)
Interactive Model of Communication / DeVitos Interactive Model DeVito (2003)
Ecological model of communication Davis Foulger (2004)

 This Table is very useful, in exam following type of Question will be asked on this communication topic.

  • Match the Pairs with Model and Developers
  • Which Communication Model as also known as….
  • Chronological order of development of Communication model


Aristotles Model of Communication (300 B.C.)

  • This model is more focused on public speaking than interpersonal communication.
  • In this model of communication, the sender sends the message to the receiver in an attempt to influence them to respond accordingly.
  • In this model, the sender is an active participant and the receiver is passive.
  • This concept is used in public speaking, seminars, and lectures.
  • It is formed with 3 basic elements : (i) Speaker, (ii) Speech, (iii) Audience

Harold Lasswell Model of Communication (1948)

  • Harold Lasswell, in his work 'The Structure and Function of Communication in Society' (1948) defined communication process as Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect.
  • This distinct model he propounded was known as Dance Model.
  • This model is simple, it applies for almost all types of communication; the major drawbacks are: feedback and noise are not mentioned.
  • Lasswells 5 are Who, What ,Whom ,What Channel, What Effect

Shannon & Weaver Model of Communication (1949)

  • Shannon & Weaver formulated a new communication model that they called Information Theory.
  • Shannon & Weaver elobrate this theory in their article titled “A Mathematical Theory of Communication” (1948)
  • In information theory, information is viewed as a measure of the entropy or uncertainty in a system. In the information theory model of communication, a source produces a message to be transmitted via a channel to a receiver.
  • Shannon and Weaver's information theory could also be seen as a system theory.

    The features of this model are:

  • A linear process.
  • A simple model (Technical)
  • Content/message is easy to identify but hard to solve ( Semantic)
  • Source is dominant factor/decision maker ( Impact/Effectiveness)
  • Noise, a disturbing factor ( Impact/Effectiveness)


  • Theodore M Newcomb explained his model of communication in his book “An Approach to the Study of Communicative Acts” in 1953.
  • Sometimes its called as an “ABX” model of communication, as it works in a triangular format or A-B-X system
  • Topic, Message receiver and Message Sender are the elements of Newcombs communication model

Wilbur Schramm & Osgood Model of Communication (1954)

  • Wilbur Schramm & Osgood Model of model is also known as Osgood and Schramms Circular Model of Communication
  • It is introduced in 1954
  • The Circular model depicts two actors who reciprocate in identical functions throughout: encoding, decoding, and interpreting.
  • The merits of the model are that it is dynamic, includes redundancy, sender and receiver are the same persons, feedback is integral part of the process and so suggests communication to be circular in nature.

George Gerbner Model of Communication (1956)

  • In 1956, Gerbner attempted a general purpose of communication model
  • He stressed the dynamic nature of communication in his work and also the factor affecting the reliability of communication.
  • In George Gerbner Model of Communication M is refer to Man & Machine , E—Events S- - signal or form

Westley & Macleans Model (1957)

  • It is a predictive model of communication and also very descriptive
  • It can account for both interpersonal communication and Mass communication
  • It also accounts for non-binary interactions
  • It is a two dimensional model; this means that the model will not be applicable for typical communication events that involve broader context and wide range of communication messages.

David Berlo SMCR Model of Communication (1960)

  • It is known as SMCR Model of Communication
  • In this model, David Berlo stresses on the relationship between the person sending the message and the receiver.
  • According to this model, for the message to be properly encoded and decoded, the communication skills of both the source and the receiver should be good.
  • SMCR refers as Source, Message, Channel and Receiver
  • Its a Complex model and Liner Model of communication

Helical Model of communication / Dances Helix Model (1967)

  • Proposed by Frank Dance in 1967.
  • Helix is a three dimensional object with a shape like that of a smooth curve that goes upwards as also comes downwards.
  • Frank Dance explains the communication process based on this Helix structure

Interactive Model of Communication / DeVitos Interactive Model (2003)

  • DeVitos model is derived from the information processing models of the 1960s and differs from the earlier rhetorical model by amplification, adding to its linear predecessor feedback, medium and noise.
  • This model has 8 components: Sender, Receiver, Message, Channel, Coder (encoder & Decoder), Context, Feedback and Noise

Ecological model of communication (2004)

  • Davis Foulger introduced his Ecological model in 2002 and restructured it in 2004.
  • This model is a more detailed elaboration of Lasswell's classic outline of the study of communication.

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