• The universal character encoding, maintained by the Unicode Consortium. 
  • This encoding standard provides the basis for processing, storage and interchange of text data in any language in all modern software and ICT protocols.
  •  It uses two bytes or 16 bits to code each character.
  •  The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including XML, the Java programming language, the Microsoft .NET Framework, and modern operating systems.
  •  The most commonly used encodings are UTF-8, UTF-16 and the now-obsoleteUCS-2. 
  • UTF-8 uses one byte for any ASCII characters, which have the same code values in both UTF-8 and ASCII encoding, and up to four bytes for other characters. UCS-2 uses a 16-bit code unit (two 8-bit bytes) for each character but cannot encode every character in the current Unicode standard. UTF-16 extends UCS-2, using two 16-bit units (4 × 8 bit) to handle each of the additional characters

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