Protocolis a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in or betweencomputingsystems and intelecommunications.


TCP-IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.


File Transfer Protocol (FTP)


File Transfer Protocol or FTP is a method for sending files over the Internet. FTP, which is usually handled by a special communications utility program, can be used to transfer files between two computers that have mutual password access. Anonymous FTP allows a computer user to log onto the Internet and download or retrieve a file from a server without having a password account on that system. The user's e-mail address and Internet connection provide acceptance by the FTP server.

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a data transfer system for HTML. It is an integral party of linking and growing the world wide web

IP Addresses

  • IP addresses consist of a 32 bit number and is represented by the dot-decimal format.
  • for example: is an IP address
  • There are 4 decimal digits separated by three dots. Each digit is allowed the range of 0 to 255 which corresponds to 8 bits (one byte) of information
  • A portion of an IP address represents the network address and the remaining portion the host address
  • The Network Information Center (NIC) assigns network addresses to the Internet
  • An alternative is to "rent" IP addresses from your local Internet Service Provider (ISP)

Domain Names

  • IP addresses are difficult for humans to remember, they're great for PCs! Domain names were invented to make it easier to navigate the Internet. A domain name is a vaguely descriptive name separated by dots.

For example:

  • Every machine that runs TCP/IP has a text file calledhosts. It is a simple lookup table that the network stack (IP) checks to see if it has a match between a domain name and an IP address.
  • The IP address is listed on the left and the domain name is listed on the right
  • If you are connected to the Internet then aDomain Name Server(DNS) is used. A DNS is a special server that communicates with other servers and keeps an up-to-date look-up table that matches IP addresses to domain names for the complete Internet

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